Sanford Scott Leffingwell                                                                     Telephone: (770) 963-1223

HLM Consultants                                                                                           FAX: (770) 995-5379

214 Wynfield Way 

Auburn, Georgia 30011                                                              e-mail:


A.B., Harvard University, 1961.

M.D., University of Colorado School of Medicine, 1965.

M.P.H., The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, 1975.


2007 to present. Staff Physician, Suwanee Pain Management Center, Suwanee, GA.

2001 to 2005. Member, Subcommittee to Review of the Department of Defense Research Program on Low-Level Exposures to Chemical Warfare Agents.

2003 to 2006. Member of the Ranchhand Advisory Committee, Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD.

2003 to 2005. Member Subcommittee to Review the Department of Defense Research Program on Low-Level Exposures to Chemical Warfare Agents, Committee on Toxicology, National Academy of Sciences.

1995 to present. Occupational and Environmental Medicine Consultant, HLM Consultants, Atlanta, GA.

2001 to 2002. Adjunct Principal Research Scientist, Electro-optics, Environment, and Materials Laboratory, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

2000 to 2013. Staff Physician, Tree Trail Medical, Norcross, Georgia.

1999 to 2004. Staff Physician, Covington One Medical, Covington, GA.

1999 to present. Qualified Expert for Investigation of Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons, Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, the Hague, Netherlands.

1998 to 1999. Advisor, National Research Council, Institute of Medicine, Washington, D.C., Advisor on Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed US Forces Study.

1997 to 1999. Medical Director and Investigator, VRG, Atlanta, GA.

1996 to 2001. Assistant Investigator, Innovative Medical Research, Atlanta, GA.

1996 to 1999. Staff Physician, First Choice Medical, Atlanta, GA.

1995 to 1998. Medical Consultant, Aon Medical Consultants, Boston, MA.

1996 to 1999. Member, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council (NRC) Standing Committee on CBDCOM and Member, Committee on Toxicology, Subcommittee of Chronic Reference Doses for Chemical Warfare Agents, Washington, D.C.

1995 to 1996. Staff Physician, Helian Health Group, Atlanta, GA.

1995. Member, U.S. Medical Delegation to provide technical assistance to Japan in medical management of people injured in the subway incident of March 20, 1995.

1985 to 1995. Medical Epidemiologist, Chemical Demilitarization Program, Special Programs Group, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, GA.

1990 to 1993. Various temporary assignments as an internist and general medical officer, including service at the federal penitentiary in Oxford, WI, and at community health centers in New Iberia, LA (as part of the Hurricane Andrew relief effort), Kanawa, OK, and Hermiston, OR.

1990 to 1991. Member, U.S. Negotiating Team for Rounds XVII to XIX of Negotiations on a Bilateral (U.S. and U.S.S.R.) Chemical Weapons Treaty.

1983 to 1985. Chief, Research Analysis Section, Priorities and Research Analysis Branch, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH.

1978 to 1983. Medical Officer, Industry-wide Studies Branch, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH.

1975 to 1978. Chief, Clinical Services Branch, Public Health Service (PHS), Division of Federal Employee Health (DFEH), Hyattsville, MD.

1972 to 1975. Deputy Chief, Clinical Services Branch, PHS DFEH, Hyattsville, MD.

1971 to 1972. Chief, Medical Service, PHS Indian Hospital, Ft. Defiance, AZ.

1969 to 1971. Service Unit Director, PHS Indian Hospital, Mescalero, NM.

1968. Staff Internist, Coco Solo Hospital, Coco Solo, Canal Zone.

1966 to 1969. Resident in Internal Medicine, Gorgas Hospital, Ancon, Canal Zone.

1965 to 1966. Rotating Intern, Gorgas Hospital, Ancon, Canal Zone.

1964 to 1965. Research Assistant, Ultrasound Laboratory, University of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, CO.

Honors, Awards, Certification:

First Place, Scientific Paper Competition, Medical Society of the Isthmian Canal Zone, 1969.

American Cancer Society, District of Columbia Division, Certificate of Merit, 1976 (for training occupational health nurses in techniques for urogenital cancer screening.)

PHS Plaque, 1981 (for work on NIOSH initiative "Prevention of Reproductive Effects Due to Workplace Hazards".)

PHS Outstanding Service Medal, 1988. PHS Commendation Medal, 1985. Crisis Response Service Award, Special Assignment Service Ribbon, and Unit Commendation, 1992.

Diplomate in Occupational Medicine, American Board of Preventive Medicine, 1985.

US Army Chemical Demilitarization and Remediation Agency Eagle Award, 1995.

Diplomate, American Board of Quality Assurance and Utilization Review Physicians, 1997. Certified in: Case Management, Managed Care, Risk Management, and Worker’s Compensation sub-specialties, 1999.

  Fellow, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM), 2003.

  Licensed to practice medicine in Georgia, 1994 to present.

  Licensed to practice medicine in Alabama, 2004 to present.

 Foreign Languages:

Spanish, German, and Russian read and spoken.


Ederma A, Leffingwell SS: A Professional Guide for Federal Occupational Health Units. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: 1975.

Public Health Service. Ship's Medicine Chest and Medical Aid at Sea. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: 1978. (Member of Editorial Advisory Board.)

Albert DM, Puliafito CA, Fulton AB, Robinson NL, Zakov ZN, & Dryja DP and Smith AB, Egan E, Leffingwell SS. Increased incidence of choroidal malignant melanoma occurring in a single population of chemical workers. J Ophthalmol 1980;89(3):323-337.

Alexander V, Leffingwell SS, Lloyd JW, Waxweiler RJ, Miller RL: Brain cancer in petrochemical workers--a case series report. Am J Ind Med 1980;1(1):115-123.

Leffingwell SS, Marsh D, Albright B, Lee S: Preliminary results and comparison of Japanese, Finnish, and United States carbon disulfide microaneurysm studies. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Environmental Toxicology, 1980. Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force System Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Report No. AFAMRL-TR-80-125.

Waxweiler RJ, Haring M, Leffingwell SS, Halperin WH: Quantification of differences between proportionate mortality ratios and standardized mortality ratios. Banbury Report 9: Quantification of Occupational Cancer. Cincinnati: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1981.

Fajen J, Albright B, Leffingwell SS: A cross-sectional medical and industrial hygiene survey of workers exposed to carbon disulfide. Scand J Work Environ Health 1981;7(Suppl 4):20-27.

Waxweiler RJ, Alexander V, Leffingwell SS, Haring M, Lloyd JW: Mortality from brain tumors and other causes of death in a cohort of petrochemical workers. J Natl Cancer Inst, 1983;70(1):75-81.

Leffingwell SS, Waxweiler RJ, Alexander V, Ludwig HR, Halperin W: Case-control study of brain cancer among workers employed by a Texas City, Texas, chemical plant. Neuroepidemiology 1983;2:179-195.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Leffingwell  SS: Health effects of occupational exposure to carbon disulfide. Cincinnati: National Technical Information Service, 1984.

Hutchinson L, Johnson D, Leffingwell S. (eds.) NIOSH Review of the Dormant Standards, 1984. Regulatory recommendations made Robert Rowland, Assistant Secretary for Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.

Leffingwell SS: Carbon disulfide. In: Zenz C. (ed.) Occupational Medicine: Principles and Practical Applications, 2nd Ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1988.

Public Health Service, Leffingwell SS: Recommendations for protecting the health and safety against potential adverse effects of long-term exposure to low doses of agents: GA, GB, VX, Mustard (H, HD, T), and Lewisite (L). Federal Register Vol 53:8504 ff (Document 88-5573), March 15, 1988.

Watson AP, Ambrose KR, Griffin GD, Leffingwell SS, Munro NB, Waters LC: Health effects of warfare agent exposure: implications for stockpile disposal. Environ. Professional 1990;11(4):335-353.

Public Health Service, Leffingwell SS: Results of a workshop meeting to discuss protection of public health and safety during reentry into areas potentially contaminated with a lethal chemical agent (GB, VX, or Mustard Agent). Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control, 1990.

Leffingwell SS: Public Health Aspects of Chemical Warfare Agents. In Chemical Warfare Agents, S. Somani, Ed., Academic Press, 1992.

Watson AP, Sidell FR, Leffingwell SS, Munro NB. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents. Oak Ridge National Laboratories ORNL/TM-12034. Oak Ridge, TN. January 1992.

Watson AP, Adams JD, Cerar RJ, Hess TL, Kistner SL, Leffingwell SS, McIntosh RG, Ward JR. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items. Oak Ridge National Laboratories ORNL/TM-12035. Oak Ridge, TN. January 1992.

Toxicology Desk Reference. Ryan RP, Terry CE, Leffingwell SS, Eds. Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, 1999.

NRC Reports: The National Research Council properly holds that its reports have a corporate authorship: they are not the work of individuals nor even of committees. These works, to which I contributed, are therefore listed separately from other publications.

National Research Council. Assessment of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command: Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) Program. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997. [Co-author, especially of “Chapter 4: Test Methods and Sampler Selection”.]

National Research Council. Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical-Warfare Agents. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1999. [Co-author, especially of “Chapters 3 through 6: Evaluation of the Army’s Interim Reference Dose for GA, GB, GD, and VX”.]

Institute of Medicine, Medical Follow-up Agency. Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Medical Surveillance, Record Keeping, Risk Reduction. LM Joellenbeck, PK Russell, and SB Guze, Eds. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1999. [Member of Advisory Panel.]

NRC. Review of the Department of Defense Research Program on Low-Level Exposures to Chemical Warfare Agents. Washington DC: National Academy Press. 2005.